br Table reports the LE and YLL
Table 1 reports the LE and YLL for all cancer types combined for females, males, and both sexes by age at diagnosis and at specific time points after diagnosis (0, 1, 5, 10, and 15 years).
Table 1. Life expectancy (LE) and years of life lost (YLL) of all cancer patients with respect to the age-matched cancer-free population at specific time points after diagnosis (0, 1, 5, 10, and 15 years) by sex and age at diagnosis
Cancer type Age at diagnosis
In the Supplementary material, the number of cases (Supplementary material Table 1) and long-term (10-year) period RS estimates (Supplementary material Table 2) are also reported for the considered cancer sites, sex, and age at diagnosis, as the RSs are the major drivers of LE indicators. Furthermore, Supplementary material Tables 3 and 4 report the LE and YLL of female and male cancer patients by age at diagnosis for all considered cancers at specific time points (0, 1, 5, 10, and 15 years) after diagnosis.
The estimated LE of women diagnosed with any cancer (Fig. 1 and Table 1) presented some general characteristics common to most of the considered site-specific cancers. The largest drop in LE, with respect to cancer-free women of the same age, occurred immediately at diagnosis (Fig. 1). The drop in LE was highest for the youngest age BODIPY 493/503 (YLL = 11.2 years for those diagnosed at age 45 years) and progressively decreased with age at diagnosis, from 9.3 YLL at age 52 years up to 3.7 YLL at age 80 years (Table 1). After such a considerable initial drop, the patients’ LE tended to increase in the first few years after diagnosis for those surviving the high death risk concentrated in these years. The initial increase was progressively less pronounced with increasing age at diagnosis and disappeared in women diagnosed after age 62 years. In the third phase, the patients’ LE started to decrease again, approaching but never reaching that of the general population. In the third phase, the cancer patients’ loss of LE with respect to the general population was highly dependent on the attained age and only to a lesser extent on the time since diagnosis. For example, the estimated YLL of women aged 72 years diagnosed 15 years earlier (that is, at age 57 years) was 2.8, while the YLL of women the same age but diagnosed only five years earlier (that is, at age 67 years) was 3.4 (Fig. 1 and Table 1).
The general picture was similar for men diagnosed with any cancer (Fig. 2 and Table 1), with some differences, partly due to the different cancer site distribution. The LE of men, both cancer-free and cancer patients, was lower with respect to women, as well-known from demographic data. The estimated increase in LE during the first years after diagnosis was more marked and appeared in all diagnosis cohorts. Finally, the patients’ curves of the different age at diagnosis cohorts were closer to each other compared to women, a consequence of the lower variability of 10-year RS by age at diagnosis (Supplementary material Table 2). The LEs of cancer patients irrespective of sex were closer to those for females of younger ages and tended to approach those for males of increasing ages, mostly attributable to the different age patterns of breast and prostate cancer incidence. However, the population LE for the two sexes combined remained approximately in the middle of the sex-specific LEs. This led the YLL for both sexes to remain higher than the overall YLL, in which females were over-represented. For older ages at diagnosis, the YLL of males and females became close to each other, with the overall YLL remaining between the two.
Beyond the differences between women and men, the LE initial drop (for example, YLL > 2) at diagnosis was observed at each and every different anatomical site considered, except for thyroid in females and testis and thyroid up to age 37 years in males. The LE pattern was mainly driven by the balance between all-causes and cancer mortality. The latter had a large impact on the youngest ages and decreased with increasing age at diagnosis and time since diagnosis (Figs. 1 and 2). Due to the LE
indicator, two groups of tumours with different patterns were identified. The first group was characterised by an initial drop in the patients’ LE followed by an increase in the first years after diagnosis and by a subsequent decrease, as for all cancers combined; the second group showed no increase after the initial LE drop but a regular decrease thereafter, sometimes following a short plateau (Figs. 1 and 2). The first group included the considered digestive (stomach, colon, and rectum) and respiratory cancers (lung and male larynx), cervix uteri, ovary, kidney, and leukaemia (Supplementary material Figs. A and B). This was a heterogeneous group; patients’ LE when diagnosed at 45 years old ranked from approximately 29.6 (cervix uteri) to 6.5 (lung male), and patients’ LE after 15 years since diagnosis (attained age = 60 years) ranked from 24.7 (stomach female) to 16.3 (lung male) (Supplementary material Tables 3 and 4).