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    Clinicopathological significance and prognostic implication of nuclear factor-κB activation in colorectal cancer 
    Jung-Soo Pyoa, Eun Kyung Kimb,
    a Department of Pathology, Eulji University Hospital, Eulji University School of Medicine, Daejeon, Republic of Korea
    b Department of Pathology, Eulji Hospital, Eulji University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
    Colorectal cancer NF-κB
    Epithelial–mesenchymal transition
    Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinicopathological significance of phosphorylated nuclear factor-κB (pNF-κB) expression, and its impact on epithelial–mesenchymal transition and angiogenesis in colorectal cancer (CRC).
    Methods: We carried out immunohistochemistry of pNF-κB on 261 human CRC tissues, and evaluated nuclear expression, regardless of cytoplasmic expression. We also investigated the correlation between pNF-κB expres-sion and clinicopathological characteristics, survival, and epithelial–mesenchymal transition and angiogenesis-related markers in CRC.
    Results: pNF-κB was expressed in the nuclei of 164 of the 261 CRC tissues (62.8%). Furthermore, pNF-κB was significantly correlated with frequent perineural invasion, lymph node metastasis, and higher pTNM stage. However, there was no significant correlation between pNF-κB expression and other clinicopathological para-meters. Among the epithelial–mesenchymal transition markers examined, SNAIL expression was significantly correlated with pNF-κB expression (P = 0.001) but E-cadherin expression was not. CRC with pNF-κB expression had significantly higher SIRT1 expression levels and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression levels than CRC without pNF-κB expression (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). However, there was no correlation between the expression levels of pNF-κB and VEGF. pNF-κB expression was significantly correlated with worse overall and recurrence-free survival rates (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively).