Banerjee S Kaye SB New strategies in the treatment
 Banerjee S, Kaye SB. New strategies in the treatment of ovarian cancer: cur-rent clinical perspectives and future potential. Clin Cancer Res 2013;19: 961e8.
 Schmidt L, Duh F-M, Chen F, Kishida T, Glenn G, Choyke P, et al. Germline and somatic mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of the MET proto-oncogene in papillary renal carcinomas. Nat Genet 1997;16:68e73. Accepted Manuscript
Antitumor effects of seleno-β-lactoglobulin on human breast cancer MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 Sulforaphane in vitro
Xiaomeng Xu, Yingying Feng, Xiaoyu Chen, Qinjian Wang, Ting Meng, Anjun Liu
This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proof before it is published in its final form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.
Antitumor effects of seleno-β-lactoglobulin on human breast cancer MCF-7 and
Xiaomeng Xua,b,Yingying Fenga, Xiaoyu Chena, Qinjian Wanga,Ting Menga, Anjun Liua,*
a Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Ministry of Education, College of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457, PR China
b QingYunTang Biotech (Beijing) Co., Ltd., No. 14, Zhonghe Street, Beijing Economic-Technological Development Area, Beijing 100176, PR China *Corresponding author. E-mail address: [email protected](A. Liu).
Seleno-β-lactoglobulin (Se-β-Lg) was synthesized using seleninic acid, an organoselenium compound, and β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg), an important component of milk. Previously, we have studied the effects of Se-β-Lg on hepatocellular carcinoma and gastric cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effects of Se-β-Lg and its potential mechanisms of action against human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). The results showed that the half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of Se-β-Lg were 40.84 µg/mL for MCF-7 cells and 46.04 µg/mL for MDA-MB-231 cells at 24 h, while the compound showed no cytotoxicity to normal breast cells. The involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the activation of the apoptotic signaling pathway by Se-β-Lg was demonstrated by the incubation of cells with 80 µg/mL Se-β-Lg and determination of the rates of apoptosis and intracellular ROS levels after the addition of 10 mM N-acetyl-L-cysteine, a ROS inhibitor. Our findings revealed highly potent anticancer activities of Se-β-Lg against breast cancer cells and suggested that the compound may be used as a chemopreventive agent for breast cancer. Furthermore, we thoroughly elucidated the antitumor mechanism of Se-β-Lg.
Keywords: Seleno-β-lactoglobulin; Breast cancer; Cell apoptosis; Mitochondrial pathway
Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers and includes a heterogeneous group of diseases that affect an increasing number of women annually, with the highest mortality rate (Amaral et al., 2018; Joyce et al., 2017). Among all subtypes of breast cancers, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for about 15−20% of cases and is characterized by the absence of the expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor type 2 receptors (Gucalp and Traina, 2016; Lin et al., 2012). Compared with other breast cancer subtypes, TNBC has higher rates of recurrence and metastasis (Liedtke et al., 2008). Treatment options for TNBC patients are limited because targeted therapies and endocrine therapies are ineffective (O'Reilly et al., 2015). Therefore, it is extremely important to find new anti-cancer drugs and therapeutic strategies, with minimal undesirable side effects.